Paul (P. A. M.) Dirac formulated the most elegant version of the mathematical principles of quantum mechanics after reading the proof copy of Werner Heisenberg's paper on the new "matrix mechanics." A few months after the completion of matrix mechanics by Heisenberg’s mentor Max Born and Born’s assistant Pascual Jordan, Erwin Schrödinger developed his "wave mechanics." Dirac and Schrödinger independently showed the new wave mechanics was mathematically and physically equivalent to the Heisenberg picture, despite the extraordinary differences between the two quantum theories. Almost two decades after Albert Einstein had said
It is therefore my opinion that the next stage in the development of theoretical physics will bring us a theory of light that can be understood as a kind of fusion of the wave and emission theories of light,Dirac's transformation theory gave us that fusion between waves and particles. Dirac combined the matrix and wave formulations using abstract symbolic methods from classical mechanics called Poisson brackets and canonical transformations. In his textbook The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Paul Dirac introduced the concepts of superposition, the projection postulate, the axiom of measurement, and indeterminacy using simple examples with polarized photons. Dirac's examples suggest a very simple and inexpensive experiment that we call the Dirac 3-polarizers experiment to demonstrate the notions of quantum states, the preparation of quantum systems in states with known properties, the superposition of states, the measurement of various properties, the representation of a state vector in another basis set of vectors, and the infamous "collapse" or "reduction" of the wave function and the resulting indeterministic projection into one of the proper basis states. In their Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, Niels Bohr and Heisenberg said that the results of quantum measurements must be expressible in classical concepts because it is the language that humans can understand. By contrast, Dirac argued that the non-intuitive concepts of quantum mechanics, though impossible to understand in terms of classical concepts, could be mastered through long familiarity with them.
The new theories, if one looks apart from their mathematical setting, are built up from physical concepts which cannot be explained in terms of things previously known to the student, which cannot even be explained adequately in words at all. Like the fundamental concepts (e.g. proximity, identity) which every one must learn on his arrival into the world, the newer concepts of physics can be mastered only by long familiarity with their properties and uses.Information physics attempts to articulate some new concepts, albeit slightly modified versions of intuitive classical concepts. We associate quantum waves with possibilities and a quantum particle with actualization of a possibility. Quantum physics lets us calculate the probabilities for each possibility, to an extraordinary degree of accuracy. Although the calculation involves abstract complex quantities and the motion through space of immaterial information about those possibilities, the result is both understandable (if non-intuitive because never experienced) and visualizable. The Information Interpretation of quantum mechanics is based on three simple premises:
ReferencesThe Fundamental Equations of Quantum Mechanics, 1925 On the Theory of Quantum Mechanics, 1926 Relativity Quantum Mechanics with an Application to Compton Scattering, 1926 The Physical Interpretation of the Quantum Dynamics, 1927 The Quantum Theory of the Emission and Absorption of Radiation, 1927 From the Preface to The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, First Edition, 1930 Chapter 1 of The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, First Edition, 1930 The Lagrangian in Quantum Mechanics, 1933 On the Analogy Between Quantum and Classical Mechanics, 1945 Chapter 1 of The Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Fourth Edition, 1956