Giulio Tononi is a neuroscientist who worked with Gerald Edelman at his Neuroscience Institute in San Diego and is now at University of Wisconsin, where he specializes in the study of sleep. Tononi expanded Edelman's theory of consciousness into what Tononi calls "Integrated Information Theory" or IIT. Tononi claims that many physical (material) systems are conscious. His theory predicts whether a system is conscious and to what degree it is conscious. It then attempts to explain what particular experience it is having. IIT is a reductionist, deterministic, and causal theory. According to IIT, a system's consciousness is an intrinsic, fundamental property of any physical system. In that respect, IIT resembles panpsychism, a central element in David Chalmers' solution for what he calls the "hard problem of consciousness."