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Philosophers

Mortimer Adler
Rogers Albritton
Alexander of Aphrodisias
Samuel Alexander
William Alston
Anaximander
G.E.M.Anscombe
Anselm
Louise Antony
Thomas Aquinas
Aristotle
David Armstrong
Harald Atmanspacher
Robert Audi
Augustine
J.L.Austin
A.J.Ayer
Alexander Bain
Mark Balaguer
Jeffrey Barrett
William Barrett
William Belsham
Henri Bergson
George Berkeley
Isaiah Berlin
Richard J. Bernstein
Bernard Berofsky
Robert Bishop
Max Black
Susanne Bobzien
Emil du Bois-Reymond
Hilary Bok
Laurence BonJour
George Boole
Émile Boutroux
F.H.Bradley
C.D.Broad
Michael Burke
Lawrence Cahoone
C.A.Campbell
Joseph Keim Campbell
Rudolf Carnap
Carneades
Ernst Cassirer
David Chalmers
Roderick Chisholm
Chrysippus
Cicero
Randolph Clarke
Samuel Clarke
Anthony Collins
Antonella Corradini
Diodorus Cronus
Jonathan Dancy
Donald Davidson
Mario De Caro
Democritus
Daniel Dennett
Jacques Derrida
René Descartes
Richard Double
Fred Dretske
John Dupré
John Earman
Laura Waddell Ekstrom
Epictetus
Epicurus
Herbert Feigl
Arthur Fine
John Martin Fischer
Frederic Fitch
Owen Flanagan
Luciano Floridi
Philippa Foot
Alfred Fouilleé
Harry Frankfurt
Richard L. Franklin
Michael Frede
Gottlob Frege
Peter Geach
Edmund Gettier
Carl Ginet
Alvin Goldman
Gorgias
Nicholas St. John Green
H.Paul Grice
Ian Hacking
Ishtiyaque Haji
Stuart Hampshire
W.F.R.Hardie
Sam Harris
William Hasker
R.M.Hare
Georg W.F. Hegel
Martin Heidegger
Heraclitus
R.E.Hobart
Thomas Hobbes
David Hodgson
Shadsworth Hodgson
Baron d'Holbach
Ted Honderich
Pamela Huby
David Hume
Ferenc Huoranszki
William James
Lord Kames
Robert Kane
Immanuel Kant
Tomis Kapitan
Walter Kaufmann
Jaegwon Kim
William King
Hilary Kornblith
Christine Korsgaard
Saul Kripke
Thomas Kuhn
Andrea Lavazza
Christoph Lehner
Keith Lehrer
Gottfried Leibniz
Jules Lequyer
Leucippus
Michael Levin
George Henry Lewes
C.I.Lewis
David Lewis
Peter Lipton
C. Lloyd Morgan
John Locke
Michael Lockwood
E. Jonathan Lowe
John R. Lucas
Lucretius
Alasdair MacIntyre
Ruth Barcan Marcus
James Martineau
Storrs McCall
Hugh McCann
Colin McGinn
Michael McKenna
Brian McLaughlin
John McTaggart
Paul E. Meehl
Uwe Meixner
Alfred Mele
Trenton Merricks
John Stuart Mill
Dickinson Miller
G.E.Moore
Thomas Nagel
Otto Neurath
Friedrich Nietzsche
John Norton
P.H.Nowell-Smith
Robert Nozick
William of Ockham
Timothy O'Connor
Parmenides
David F. Pears
Charles Sanders Peirce
Derk Pereboom
Steven Pinker
Plato
Karl Popper
Porphyry
Huw Price
H.A.Prichard
Protagoras
Hilary Putnam
Willard van Orman Quine
Frank Ramsey
Ayn Rand
Michael Rea
Thomas Reid
Charles Renouvier
Nicholas Rescher
C.W.Rietdijk
Richard Rorty
Josiah Royce
Bertrand Russell
Paul Russell
Gilbert Ryle
Jean-Paul Sartre
Kenneth Sayre
T.M.Scanlon
Moritz Schlick
Arthur Schopenhauer
John Searle
Wilfrid Sellars
Alan Sidelle
Ted Sider
Henry Sidgwick
Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
J.J.C.Smart
Saul Smilansky
Michael Smith
Baruch Spinoza
L. Susan Stebbing
Isabelle Stengers
George F. Stout
Galen Strawson
Peter Strawson
Eleonore Stump
Francisco Suárez
Richard Taylor
Kevin Timpe
Mark Twain
Peter Unger
Peter van Inwagen
Manuel Vargas
John Venn
Kadri Vihvelin
Voltaire
G.H. von Wright
David Foster Wallace
R. Jay Wallace
W.G.Ward
Ted Warfield
Roy Weatherford
C.F. von Weizsäcker
William Whewell
Alfred North Whitehead
David Widerker
David Wiggins
Bernard Williams
Timothy Williamson
Ludwig Wittgenstein
Susan Wolf

Scientists

Michael Arbib
Walter Baade
Bernard Baars
Jeffrey Bada
Leslie Ballentine
Gregory Bateson
John S. Bell
Mara Beller
Charles Bennett
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
Susan Blackmore
Margaret Boden
David Bohm
Niels Bohr
Ludwig Boltzmann
Emile Borel
Max Born
Satyendra Nath Bose
Walther Bothe
Hans Briegel
Leon Brillouin
Stephen Brush
Henry Thomas Buckle
S. H. Burbury
Melvin Calvin
Donald Campbell
Anthony Cashmore
Eric Chaisson
Gregory Chaitin
Jean-Pierre Changeux
Arthur Holly Compton
John Conway
Jerry Coyne
John Cramer
Francis Crick
E. P. Culverwell
Antonio Damasio
Olivier Darrigol
Charles Darwin
Richard Dawkins
Terrence Deacon
Lüder Deecke
Richard Dedekind
Louis de Broglie
Stanislas Dehaene
Max Delbrück
Abraham de Moivre
Paul Dirac
Hans Driesch
John Eccles
Arthur Stanley Eddington
Gerald Edelman
Paul Ehrenfest
Manfred Eigen
Albert Einstein
Hugh Everett, III
Franz Exner
Richard Feynman
R. A. Fisher
David Foster
Joseph Fourier
Philipp Frank
Steven Frautschi
Edward Fredkin
Lila Gatlin
Michael Gazzaniga
Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen
GianCarlo Ghirardi
J. Willard Gibbs
Nicolas Gisin
Paul Glimcher
Thomas Gold
A. O. Gomes
Brian Goodwin
Joshua Greene
Dirk ter Haar
Jacques Hadamard
Mark Hadley
Patrick Haggard
J. B. S. Haldane
Stuart Hameroff
Augustin Hamon
Sam Harris
Ralph Hartley
Hyman Hartman
John-Dylan Haynes
Donald Hebb
Martin Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
John Herschel
Art Hobson
Jesper Hoffmeyer
E. T. Jaynes
William Stanley Jevons
Roman Jakobson
Pascual Jordan
Ruth E. Kastner
Stuart Kauffman
Martin J. Klein
William R. Klemm
Christof Koch
Simon Kochen
Hans Kornhuber
Stephen Kosslyn
Ladislav Kovàč
Leopold Kronecker
Rolf Landauer
Alfred Landé
Pierre-Simon Laplace
David Layzer
Joseph LeDoux
Gilbert Lewis
Benjamin Libet
Seth Lloyd
Hendrik Lorentz
Josef Loschmidt
Ernst Mach
Donald MacKay
Henry Margenau
Humberto Maturana
James Clerk Maxwell
Ernst Mayr
John McCarthy
Warren McCulloch
George Miller
Stanley Miller
Ulrich Mohrhoff
Jacques Monod
Emmy Noether
Alexander Oparin
Abraham Pais
Howard Pattee
Wolfgang Pauli
Massimo Pauri
Roger Penrose
Steven Pinker
Colin Pittendrigh
Max Planck
Susan Pockett
Henri Poincaré
Daniel Pollen
Ilya Prigogine
Hans Primas
Henry Quastler
Adolphe Quételet
Jürgen Renn
Juan Roederer
Jerome Rothstein
David Ruelle
Tilman Sauer
Jürgen Schmidhuber
Erwin Schrödinger
Aaron Schurger
Thomas Sebeok
Claude Shannon
David Shiang
Herbert Simon
Dean Keith Simonton
B. F. Skinner
Lee Smolin
Ray Solomonoff
Roger Sperry
John Stachel
Henry Stapp
Tom Stonier
Antoine Suarez
Leo Szilard
Max Tegmark
Libb Thims
William Thomson (Kelvin)
Giulio Tononi
Peter Tse
Francisco Varela
Vlatko Vedral
Mikhail Volkenstein
Heinz von Foerster
John von Neumann
Jakob von Uexküll
John B. Watson
Daniel Wegner
Steven Weinberg
Paul A. Weiss
John Wheeler
Wilhelm Wien
Norbert Wiener
Eugene Wigner
E. O. Wilson
Stephen Wolfram
H. Dieter Zeh
Ernst Zermelo
Wojciech Zurek
Konrad Zuse
Fritz Zwicky

Presentations

Biosemiotics
Free Will
Mental Causation
James Symposium
 
Libb Thims
Libb Thims is an American electrochemical engineer who is building the extraordinary web-based Encyclopedia of Human Thermodynamics at EoHT.info. This valuable knowledge base on the work of hundreds of scientists, engineers, and philosophers he calls the "Hmolpedia" (a human molecule encyclopedia).

He is a prolific writer and has published several books exploring his hypothesis that chemical thermodynamics can be used to explain many aspects of human life. His two-volume Human Chemistry explores the relationship between chemical bonding and sexual bonding, a scientific look at the popular idea that "love is a chemical reaction."

His slim and highly readable 2008 volume The Human Molecule contains a valuable history of the idea that a human being can be reduced to its chemical contents. He tells us of many great thinkers who explicitly describe humans as molecules, including Hippolyte Taine, Vilfredo Pareto, Henry Adams, Teilhard de Chardin, and Charles Galton Darwin.

In 2010 Anthony Cashmore, a plant biologist and member of the National Academy of Sciences, described animals, including human beings, as a "bag of chemicals" entirely determined by the laws of physics and chemistry. He says, "we live in an era when few biologists would question the idea that biological systems are totally based on the laws of physics and chemistry." Like Thims, Cashmore sees the biological basis of human behavior as chemistry.

Back in 2002, Thims began using tables of the amounts of various chemical elements in a typical adult human to write the chemical formula for his "human molecule." He came up with this formula with 26 elements. The subscripts are read as e27, etc.

Thims hopes to describe relationships between humans in terms of chemical thermodynamics, particularly the sexual relation in which a man and woman produce a child. He writes...

AB + CD → A≡C + BD

"where A is the man, C is the woman, B and D are germ cells (sperm and egg, respectively), A≡C is the man and women chemically “bonded” in a relationship or marriage, and BD is the new child or sperm and egg chemically fused."

He says that as of 2006,he was forced

"to write a basic treatise on (a) human chemical reaction theory and (b) human chemical bond theory, as reaction models and bond are basic components in the starting point inf the science of chemical thermodynamics."

"before anyone can even attempt to write a basic book on “human chemical thermodynamics”, as I am attempting now to do (see: pdf), reaction models and bond models have to be established first, not to mention one has to establish what a human is, from the chemical thermodynamic viewpoint (hence the 2008 Human Molecule booklet)."

Thims is a strong determinist who denies the existence of ontological chance. As a consequence, he also denies human free will. He is an exponent of what he calls "smart atheism." He wrote this extensive web page on himself.

Trained as a chemical engineer, Thims is greatly bothered by scientists and others who make a connection between thermodynamics and "information theory" beginning with Claude Shannon, who called his formula for information "entropy" at the suggestion of John von Neumann, because the formula for Ludwig Boltzmann's statistical mechanical entropy had the same mathematical form, and both were summations over the probabilities of various states of a system.

Thims and Shannon's "Bandwagon"
Thims says there is nothing in information theory that is thermodynamics. Shannon himself was embarrassed by the many thinkers who jumped on what he called the "bandwagon" of information theory.

Thims has researched hundreds of examples of writers who assert the lack of connections between classical phenomenological thermodynamics, with laws that are relations between macroscopic variables, pressure, volume, temperature, chemical potentials, etc., and information theory, which is the mathematical theory of communications.

Thims says: "The equations used in [Shannon's] communication theory have absolutely nothing to do with the equations used in thermodynamics." That is true. Classical chemical thermodynamics HAS NOTHING TO DO with information theory. He is right.

Thims sometimes add that statistical mechanics has nothing to do with information theory. That is not true.

To make sense of this, we should not be comparing information to Carnot-Clausius classical thermodynamics, which has no concept of multiple possibilities with different probabilities, and the "logarithm of probabilities" that became entropy in the statistical mechanics of Boltzmann and Gibbs. Statistical mechanics has a LOT TO DO with information theory.

Boltzmann entropy and Shannon entropy have different dimensions (S = joules/degree, I = dimensionless "bits"), but they share the "mathematical isomorphism" of a logarithm of probabilities.

Boltzmann entropy: S = k ∑ pi ln pi.        Shannon information: I = - ∑ pi ln pi.

They both depend on the reality of "chance" and indeterminism that Albert Einstein showed is part of quantum mechanics ten years before Werner Heisenberg's "uncertainty."

Boltzmann entropy and Shannon entropy are both based on ontological chance, which Albert Einstein discovered 1916. He seriously disliked it, but showed that quantum mechanics could not do without it.

As Thims claims in a lengthy (120-page) article Thermodynamics ≠ Information Theory, Sadi Carnot's phenomenological entropy has nothing to do with Shannon's information communication entropy.

Thermodynamic entropy involves matter and energy, Shannon entropy is entirely mathematical, on one level purely immaterial information, though information cannot exist without "negative" thermodynamic entropy.

It is true that information is neither matter nor energy, which are conserved constants of nature (the first law of thermodynamics). But information needs matter to be embodied in an "information structure." And it needs ("free") energy to be communicated over Shannon's information channels.

Boltzmann entropy is intrinsically related to "negative entropy." Without pockets of negative entropy in the universe (and out-of-equilibrium free-energy flows), there would no "information structures" anywhere.

Pockets of negative entropy are involved in the creation of everything interesting in the universe. It is a cosmic creation process without a creator.

Annotated version of Thims' Thermodynamics ≠ Information Theory

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