Gerald EdelmanGerald Edelman won the Nobel Prize for elucidating the protein structure of antibody molecules in the human immune system. He saw an analogy between the evolution and operation of the immune system and the evolution of the brain. This led Edelman into neuroscience where he developed major theories about neural networks and made contributions to the philosophy of mind, including a biological theory of consciousness. His early work on the mechanisms of cell adhesion showed how cell adhesion molecules or CAMs control the fundamental processes by which single cells combine to create the shapes and forms of multicellular organisms. He called this work, which examines the formation of biological information structures, "topobiology." Edelman was particularly interested in the growth of the central nervous system and brain and called his theory of neuronal group selection "Neural Darwinism." In 1973 Jean-Pierre Changeux had developed a formal model of synapse selection, which was a precursor of "Neural Darwinism." In 1998 Edelman and Changeux edited the important collection of articles for Daedalus magazine later published as the book Brain. Edelman was a reductionist who rejected any form of dualism. He also did not like "computational" models of the mind. With his colleague Giulio Tononi, Edelman wrote "A Universe of Consciousness." In the book, Tononi and Edelman claim that many physical (material) systems are conscious. Their theory predicts whether a system is conscious and to what degree it is conscious. It then attempts to explain what particular experience it is having. Tononi calls his work Integrated Information Theory. IIT is a reductionist, deterministic, and causal theory. According to IIT, a system's consciousness is an intrinsic, fundamental property of any physical system. In that respect, IIT resembles panpsychism, a central element in David Chalmers' solution for what he calls the "hard problem of consciousness."