The Information Philosophy Mind-Model identifies the correct divide between psychic and non-psychic objects in the universe. Since information is a universal property of matter, it "goes all the way down," so in one sense, the basis of mentality - information - is present in the simplest physical structures. But since mind is a property of living things and artificial intelligent machines only, we can see the first proto-mind developing in the earliest macromolecules that could replicate their information structures. Information philosophy shows that there is nothing like reflective awareness in passive information structures like the galaxies. stars, and planets. It is only living things, that use information processing to manage the flow of matter and energy through their information structures, that have the awareness and the (sometimes emotional) reactions to their environments that can be called consciousness in higher beings. And there is nothing in the lower forms of life like the accumulated experiences recorded in the brains of higher animals that make their "conscious" reactions to similar events quite diverse. This accounts for the first-person, "subjective" nature of experience that David Chalmers calls the "hard problem" of consciousness. Material objects react "objectively" in their interactions with other objects. Living things, with their immaterial minds, react "subjectively" to events in the world. They have "behaviors," which are the products of their individual life experiences that have been acquired environmentally ("nurture") as well as the past experiences of their species, which are transmitted genetically ("nature"). Higher organisms with two stages of freedom and creativity also can create genuinely new behaviors and add to the increasing sum of human knowledge. We have surveyed many philosophers and scientists who turned to panpsychism, including William James, Alfred North Whitehead, Wolfgang Pauli (greatly influenced by Carl Jung), Gregory Bateson, William Seager, Roger Penrose, Henry Stapp, Michael Lockwood, Stuart Hameroff, Harald Atmanspacher, Ulrich Mohrhoff, Uwe Meixner, David Chalmers, and Galen Strawson.
ReferencesMichael Schramm's Metaphysics of Panpsychism Wikipedia article Stanford Encyclopedia article (Seager)