John-Dylan Haynes is a neuroscientist and Director of the Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging (BCAN). He has designed and performed modern versions of the classic Libet experiments. Like Patrick Haggard, Haynes has generally agreed with the claims of Harvard psychologist Daniel Wegner, that "conscious will" is an illusion. But in his most recent work, appearing in the Publications of the National Academy of Sciences, Haynes has found a little more room for free will, or perhaps only confirmation of what is called a"free won't," Benjamin Libet's claim that we can have veto power over an action that has already been initiated. A recent press release described his new work
How can the unconscious brain processes possibly know in advance what decision a person is going to make at a time when they are not yet sure themselves? Until now, the existence of such preparatory brain processes has been regarded as evidence of 'determinism', according to which free will is nothing but an illusion, meaning our decisions are initiated by unconscious brain processes, and not by our 'conscious self'. In conjunction with Prof. Dr. Benjamin Blankertz and Matthias Schultze-Kraft from Technische Universität Berlin, a team of researchers from Charité's Bernstein Center for Computational Neuroscience, led by Prof. Dr. John-Dylan Haynes, has now taken a fresh look at this issue. Using state-of-the-art measurement techniques, the researchers tested whether people are able to stop planned movements once the readiness potential for a movement has been triggered. “The aim of our research was to find out whether the presence of early brain waves means that further decision-making is automatic and not under conscious control, or whether the person can still cancel the decision, i.e. use a 'veto',” explains Prof. Haynes. As part of this study, researchers asked study participants to enter into a 'duel' with a computer, and then monitored their brain waves throughout the duration of the game using electroencephalography (EEG). A specially-trained computer was then tasked with using these EEG data to predict when a subject would move, the aim being to out-maneuver the player. This was achieved by manipulating the game in favor of the computer as soon as brain wave measurements indicated that the player was about to move. If subjects are able to evade being predicted based on their own brain processes this would be evidence that control over their actions can be retained for much longer than previously thought, which is exactly what the researchers were able to demonstrate. “A person’s decisions are not at the mercy of unconscious and early brain waves. They are able to actively intervene in the decision-making process and interrupt a movement,” says Prof. Haynes. “Previously people have used the preparatory brain signals to argue against free will. Our study now shows that the freedom is much less limited than previously thought. However, there is a 'point of no return' in the decision-making process, after which cancellation of movement is no longer possible.” Further studies are planned in which the researchers will investigate more complex decision-making processes.The kinds of deliberative and evaluative processes that are important for free will involve longer time periods than those studied by Haynes. The abrupt and rapid decisions needed to beat the computer bear little resemblance to the kinds of two-stage deliberate decisions for which we can first freely generate alternative possibilities for action, then evaluate which is the best of these possibilities in the light of our reasons, motives, and desires - first "free," then "will."
Haynes PresentationsDo We Have Free Will? (Zurich Minds) Mind Reading with Brain Scanners (TEDx Berlin) Websites:
Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging